Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are phosphotransferase enzymes that have the ability to transfer a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to tyrosine amino acid residue which creates ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and phosphotyrosine. Phosphorylation of proteins triggers modifications in their enzymatic activity which can cause precise chemical responses. There are two classes of PTKs: cytoplasmic non-receptor PTKs (NRTKs) and transmembrane receptor PTKs.
These non-receptor tyrosine kinases are non-specific, protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) which are generally found in all metazoans. Hence, NRTKs are vital components of signaling pathways which have the ability to regulate important cellular functions such as apoptosis, survival, proliferation, and cell differentiation. Non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors are small molecules, generally aromatic. These are appropriate drug targets for inflammatory, proliferative, neurodegenerative, and metabolic diseases.
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The simple difference between the non-receptor tyrosine kinase and receptor tyrosine kinase is the location. Non-receptor tyrosine kinase exist in cytoplasm of the cell, while receptor tyrosine kinase exist on the surface of cells, particularly cell membrane. In the past few years, non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (NRTKs) have emerged as one of the most encouraging therapeutics in different types of cancers. The advancements in the technical and theoretical knowledge of mechanism & functions of cell cycle, its enzymes helps to understand pathways for normal & tumorous cells growth, has led to substantial developments inhibitors which has the ability to stop or prevent cancerous cells growth in effected cells.
Key players operating in the global non-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors market are Array Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myer Squibb, Novartis, Merck, and Pfizer, among others.
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